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Foundations of Digital Marketing - FDM Concepts


  1. Trojan: A Trojan is a type of malicious software that disguises itself as legitimate software to deceive users into executing it. Once activated, Trojans can perform harmful actions like stealing data, taking control of a computer, or installing other malware

  2. Virus: A virus is a program that spreads by attaching itself to other software and can replicate itself. Unlike Trojans, viruses can execute and replicate independently without user intervention

  3. Cookies: Cookies are small pieces of data stored on a user's device by websites to track user activity, remember preferences, and enhance user experience. They are not inherently malicious but can be used for tracking purposes.

  4. APIs: APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are sets of rules and protocols that allow different software applications to communicate with each other. They define the methods for requesting and exchanging data between applications

  5. Bounce Rate:  Bounce rate refers to the percentage of visitors who navigate away from a website after viewing only one page, without interacting further or visiting other pages on the site.  It is a crucial metric in digital marketing and SEO as it indicates user engagement and the effectiveness of a website in retaining visitors.  Lowering bounce rates is often a goal for websites, especially those focused on conversions, as high bounce rates can indicate issues with content, user experience, or relevance to visitors.

  6. Conversion Rate: Conversion rate is the percentage of website visitors who complete a desired action, such as making a purchase, signing up for a newsletter, or filling out a form. Significance: Conversion rate is a key metric in digital marketing that measures the effectiveness of a website in turning visitors into customers or leads.  Increasing conversion rates is a primary objective for businesses, and strategies like improving website design, enhancing user experience, and optimizing calls-to-action can help boost conversion rates

  7. Long Tail Concept: The long tail concept refers to the strategy of targeting niche markets or less popular keywords rather than focusing solely on popular or high-traffic keywords.  Long-tail keywords are more specific and typically have lower search volumes but higher conversion rates as they attract more targeted and motivated traffic. Using long-tail keywords in SEO and content marketing can help businesses reach a more qualified audience and improve their chances of ranking higher in search engine results.

  8. Landing Pages: Landing pages are standalone web pages created for specific marketing campaigns with the goal of converting visitors into leads or customers. Landing pages are designed to drive targeted traffic from various sources like ads, emails, or social media and encourage visitors to take a specific action, such as making a purchase or signing up for a service.  Optimizing landing pages involves focusing on elements like clear call-to-action buttons, compelling content, relevant keywords, and user-friendly design to maximize conversions and achieve marketing objectives

  9. Cloud Computing: Cloud computing provides computing resources like virtual servers, data storage, network capacity, and development environments that are not tied to any specific location.Usage: Cloud computing is primarily for software developers, application vendors, savvy computer users, and corporate IT departments, offering infrastructure and services that can be rented.

  10. SaaS (Software as a Service): SaaS is a method of software delivery where users access software applications over the internet instead of installing and maintaining them locally.  SaaS applications are fully formed end-user applications that run on the vendor's servers, and users pay a subscription fee to use the software.

  11. Cloud Processing:  Cloud processing refers to the ability to process data or run applications in the cloud without the need for physical hardware. Cloud processing involves tasks like data analysis, running applications, or performing computations on virtual servers hosted in the cloud.

  12. Cloud Storage:  Cloud storage involves storing data on remote servers accessed over the internet instead of on local devices. Cloud storage provides scalable and secure data storage solutions, allowing users to access their data from anywhere with an internet connection.

  13. Cost per acquisition (CPA) is a marketing metric that measures the total cost incurred to acquire one paying customer. It encompasses the expenses associated with marketing campaigns or other initiatives aimed at acquiring new customers. The formula to calculate CPA involves dividing the total marketing campaign cost by the total number of conversions, providing businesses with a clear understanding of the cost efficiency of their customer acquisition efforts. CPA is a crucial key performance indicator (KPI) that helps businesses assess the effectiveness of their marketing strategies and make informed decisions regarding their marketing budget allocation and overall business performance

  14. Search Engine Optimization (SEO): Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of optimizing a website to improve its visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs). The goal of SEO is to increase organic (non-paid) traffic to a website by enhancing its relevance and authority in the eyes of search engines like Google. SEO involves various strategies such as keyword research, content optimization, technical optimization, and link building to help websites rank higher in search results and attract more visitors.

  15. Pay-Per-Click (PPC) Advertising: Pay-Per-Click (PPC) Advertising is a digital marketing model where advertisers pay a fee each time their ad is clicked. It is a way of buying visits to a website rather than earning them organically through SEO. PPC ads appear at the top of search engine results pages or on websites and social media platforms, and advertisers bid on keywords relevant to their target audience. PPC campaigns can be highly targeted, measurable, and provide instant visibility for businesses looking to drive traffic and conversions.

  16. Social Media Marketing: Social Media Marketing involves using social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn to promote products or services. It encompasses creating and sharing content, engaging with followers, running paid advertising campaigns, and building brand awareness and customer relationships. Social media marketing is effective for reaching a wide audience, driving website traffic, and fostering customer engagement through interactive and shareable content.

  17. Email Marketing: Email Marketing is a digital marketing strategy that involves sending commercial messages to a group of people via email. It is used to promote products, services, events, or content to a targeted audience. Email marketing campaigns can include newsletters, promotional offers, product updates, and personalized messages tailored to specific customer segments. Email marketing is a cost-effective way to nurture leads, retain customers, and drive conversions by delivering relevant and timely content directly to subscribers' inboxes.

  18. Content Marketing: Content Marketing is a strategic marketing approach focused on creating and distributing valuable, relevant, and consistent content to attract and retain a clearly defined audience. Content marketing aims to drive profitable customer action by providing information that educates, entertains, or inspires the target audience. Content can take various forms such as blog posts, videos, infographics, whitepapers, and podcasts, and is used to build brand authority, engage customers, and drive organic traffic to websites.

  19. Mobile Marketing: Mobile Marketing refers to marketing strategies tailored to reach audiences on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. It includes mobile-responsive website design, mobile apps, SMS marketing, location-based marketing, and mobile advertising. Mobile marketing leverages the widespread use of mobile devices to deliver personalized and targeted messages to users on the go. It is essential for businesses to optimize their marketing efforts for mobile users to enhance customer engagement and drive conversions in an increasingly mobile-centric world.

  20. Pay on Demand Cloud Services: This term refers to the ability to pay for cloud services as and when they are used, without any fixed commitments or upfront 

  21. Keyword Research: The process of identifying and analyzing the words and phrases that people use when searching for information online. Keyword research is a crucial aspect of SEO as it helps to optimize website content and improve search engine rankings. It involves understanding user intent, search volume, and competition for specific keywords

  22. Competitor Research: The process of analyzing and evaluating the online presence, marketing strategies, and performance of competitors in terms of SEO. Competitor research helps to identify strengths and weaknesses, understand the competitive landscape, and develop a more effective SEO strategy. It includes analyzing competitor keywords, backlink profiles, content strategies, and social media presence

  23. SEO Content Writing: The process of creating website content that is optimized for search engines. SEO content writing involves using relevant keywords, providing valuable information, and following best practices for on-page SEO. The goal is to attract organic traffic, improve search engine rankings, and engage users

  24. On-Page SEO: The process of optimizing individual webpages to improve search engine rankings and user experience. On-page SEO involves optimizing content, meta tags, URL structure, and internal linking. It is a crucial aspect of SEO as it directly affects how search engines crawl, index, and rank webpages

  25. Technical SEO: The process of optimizing the technical aspects of a website to improve search engine rankings. Technical SEO involves optimizing site speed, mobile responsiveness, site architecture, and XML sitemaps. It also includes fixing broken links, improving crawlability, and implementing structured data

  26. Link Building: The process of acquiring backlinks from other websites to improve search engine rankings. Link building involves creating high-quality content, building relationships with other websites, and using various link-building strategies such as guest blogging, broken link building, and influencer outreach. It is a crucial aspect of SEO as it directly affects how search engines determine the authority and relevance of a website

  27. Tag Manager: A tool that allows website owners to manage and deploy marketing tags (snippets of code/keywords) on their website without the need for technical expertise. Tag Manager simplifies the process of tracking user behavior, managing analytics, and implementing marketing campaigns

  28. Search Console: A free tool provided by Google that allows website owners to monitor and improve their website's performance in Google search results. Search Console provides insights into search traffic, keyword rankings, crawl errors, and security issues. It also allows website owners to submit sitemaps, test structured data, and request indexing with google(and other search engines).

  29. Google Analytics: A free tool provided by Google that allows website owners to track and analyze website traffic, user behavior, and marketing campaigns. Google Analytics provides insights into user demographics, engagement metrics, conversion rates, and revenue. It also allows website owners to set up goals, track events, and segment data

  30. Influencer Outreach is a marketing strategy that involves engaging with influential people in order to create awareness and promote a product or service to their audience. It is a process of building relationships with influencers in a particular niche or industry, and leveraging their influence to reach a wider audience and build brand awareness. Influencer outreach can take many forms, including paid sponsorships, affiliate marketing, product reviews, or collaborations

  31. Backlinks are links from other websites to your website. They are important for SEO as they are a signal to search engines that your website is valuable and relevant. Backlinks can be acquired through various methods, including guest blogging, influencer outreach, and broken link building

  32. Content Management System (CMS) is a software application that allows users to create, manage, and modify content on a website without the need for technical expertise. Examples of popular CMS platforms include WordPress, Joomla, and Drupal

  33. Professional Social Network is a social media platform that is specifically designed for professionals to connect and network with each other. Examples of professional social networks include LinkedIn, Xing, and Viadeo

  34. Meta-data is data that provides information about other data. In the context of SEO, meta-data refers to the information that is included in the HTML code of a webpage, such as the title tag, meta description, and header tags. Meta-data helps search engines understand the content of a webpage and improve its visibility in search results

  35. Meta-Tags are HTML tags that provide information about a webpage. Examples of meta-tags include the title tag, meta description, and header tags. Meta-tags help search engines understand the content of a webpage and improve its visibility in search results

  36. URL Structure refers to the way that URLs are organized and formatted on a website. A well-designed URL structure can improve the user experience, make it easier for search engines to crawl and index webpages, and improve search engine rankings. Best practices for URL structure include using descriptive keywords, avoiding parameters and unnecessary characters, and using hyphens to separate words

Sitemap is a file that lists all the webpages on a website. Sitemaps help search engines understand the structure of a website and improve its visibility in search results. Sitemaps can be submitted to search engines through tools such as Google Search Console, and can also be used to improve the user experience by providing a clear and organized view of the website's content


  1. Lead generation keywords: These are keywords that are relevant to a business's products or services, have a competitive landscape, and are structured based on the target audience and their buyer's journey stage

  2. Buyer personas: These are semi-fictional representations of a business's ideal customer, based on market research and data about their demographics, buying behavior patterns, and motivations

  3. Keyword structure: This refers to the specific search intent and buying journey stage of a target audience, which can influence the type of content and keywords used to attract and convert them

  4. Keyword research tools: These are tools such as MOZ and SEMrush that can help businesses discover new keywords and optimize their content strategy

  5. Keyword optimization: This refers to the process of improving a website's SEO and the chances of getting its content among the top search results by optimising a relevant list of keywords with quality content

  6. Competitor keyword research: This involves researching the keywords that a business's competitors are using to see what is working for them and then improving upon it for the business's own website

  7. Transactional keywords: These are keywords that embody a user's intent to buy or find a place to buy from, indicating that users are actively looking to act and often leading to transactions after the user fills out a website lead form, makes a phone call, requests a quote, or some other critical action

  8. Local vs. Non-Local Transactional Keywords: These are keywords that indicate whether users are looking for locally available services or not, and can impact a business's digital marketing strategy

  9. Google Ads: This is a paid, quick-to-market approach to harness the potential of transactional keywords and transform user intent into valuable conversions

  10. User search perspective: This refers to the context of how users search, which can influence the SEO targeting strategy and the type of content used to attract and convert them

  11. Navigational, Informational, and Transactional Searches: These are the core types of user searches, with transactional searches being the money-makers and indicating that the user is searching for a solution provider or product

  12. Website Traffic: Refers to the number of visitors a website receives, which is crucial for lead generation as more traffic can lead to more potential leads.

  13. Cost Per Acquisition (CPA): The cost incurred to acquire a customer, which is an important metric to evaluate the efficiency of lead generation campaigns.

  14. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) per Channel: The cost associated with acquiring a customer through different marketing channels, helping businesses optimize their lead generation strategies.

  15. Pipeline Growth: The process of expanding the sales pipeline by nurturing leads and moving them through the various stages of the sales process.

  16. Social Engagement: Involves interactions on social media platforms, which can be a valuable source of leads and a way to engage with potential customers.

  17. Content Performance: Refers to how well content resonates with the target audience, impacting lead generation effectiveness.

  18. Brand Sentiment: The overall perception and feelings customers have towards a brand, which can influence lead generation efforts positively or negatively.

  19. Lead Funnel: The process of moving leads through different stages of the sales funnel, from awareness to conversion.

  20. Lead Magnets in Digital Marketing: Offers or incentives provided to potential leads in exchange for their contact information, helping to attract and convert leads.

  21. Marketing Automation Workflows: Automated processes that streamline marketing tasks, nurture leads, and improve lead generation efficiency.

  22. Number of Quality Leads: The quantity of leads that meet specific criteria, indicating the effectiveness of lead generation efforts.

  23. Conversion Rate: The percentage of leads that take a desired action, such as making a purchase or signing up for a service.

  24. Total Lead Value: The total worth of all leads generated, providing insights into the potential revenue generated from lead conversion.

  25. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC): The cost associated with acquiring a new customer, which is essential for evaluating the return on investment in lead generation.

  26. Sales Closure Rate: The percentage of leads that successfully convert into customers, reflecting the effectiveness of lead nurturing and sales efforts.

  27. Average Lead Response Time: The average time taken to respond to leads, which can impact lead conversion rates.

  28. Click-Through Rate (CTR): The percentage of people who click on a specific link, indicating the level of engagement with lead generation content.

  29. The Ratio of MQL to SQL: The proportion of Marketing Qualified Leads (MQL) to Sales Qualified Leads (SQL), showing the quality of leads generated.

  30. Marketing Qualified Lead (MQL): Leads that have been identified as potential customers based on their engagement with marketing efforts.

  31. Sales Qualified Lead (SQL): Leads that have been deemed ready for direct sales engagement based on specific criteria.

  32. Product Qualified Lead (PQL): Leads that have used a product and shown interest in purchasing it.

  33. Demand Generation Vs Lead Generation: Demand generation focuses on creating interest and awareness, while lead generation involves identifying and nurturing potential customers.

  34. Call-to-Action (CTA): Prompts that encourage users to take a specific action, such as signing up for a newsletter or downloading a resource, crucial for lead generation success.

Lakshminarasimman V Rao |JSS| 21DM106|FOUNDATIONS OF DIGITAL MARKETING| LEAD GENERATION|STUDY NOTES| MBA |Study Notes| Corporate Neeti Consulting | Mysuru|24APR24

All data above is a combination of data downloaded/searched from Internet, notes and views of Students, purpose of this doc is for research and education only and responses received from Class students and interaction.

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